Zanzibar forms part of the United Republic of Tanzania, and consists of the islands of Zanzibar with a total area of 2,332 square meters, out of which 1,666 square meters for Unguja and 988 square meters for Pemba. It consists of numerous small islands and two large ones: Unguja (the main island, informally referred to as “Zanzibar”), and Pemba.
Zanzibar was once a separate state with a long trading history within the Arab world, and also India and China. It united with Tanganyika to form Tanzania in 1964 and still enjoys a high degree of autonomy within the union. The capital of Zanzibar, located on the island of Unguja, is Stone Town, and is a World Heritage Site.
Zanzibar Islands, from the 2004 national census the population of Zanzibar stands at 1.1 million people with a growth rate of 3.1%, with 51% women and 49% men. Zanzibar is a multi-racial, multi-cultural, multi-political party society with Islam as the predominant religion whilst maintaining tolerance and peaceful coexistence with other religions. Zanzibar’s main industries are spices, raffia, and tourism.
It is still sometimes referred to as the Spice Islands (a term also associated with the Maluku Islands in Indonesia) because of the significance of its production of cloves (of which it used to be the world leader in the 1970s, nutmeg, cinnamon and pepper. Zanzibar’s ecology is of note for being the home of the endemic Zanzibar Red Colobus and the Zanzibar Leopard.